Investigations based on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for osteoporosis have attracted attention recently. MSCs can be derived from various tissues, such as bone marrow, adipose, umbilical cord, placenta, and dental pulp. Among these, dental pulp–derived MSCs (DPSCs) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-modified DPSCs (DPSCs-HGF) highly express osteogenic-related genes and have stronger osteogenic differentiation capacities. DPSCs have more benefits in treating osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of HGF gene-modified DPSCs in bone regeneration using a mouse model of ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss. The HGF and luciferase genes were transferred into human DPSCs using recombinant adenovirus. These transduced cells were assayed for distribution or bone regeneration assay by transplantation into an OVX-induced osteoporosis model. By using bioluminogenic imaging, it was determined that some DPSCs could survive for >1 month in vivo. The DPSCs were mainly distributed to the lung in the early stage and to the liver in the late stage of OVX osteoporosis after administration, but they were scarcely distributed to the bone. The homing efficiency of DPSCs is higher when administrated in the early stage of a mouse OVX model. Micro-computed tomography indicated that DPSCs-Null or DPSCs-HGF transplantation significantly reduces OVX-induced bone loss in the trabecular bone of the distal femur metaphysis, and DPSCs-HGF show a stronger capacity to reduce bone loss. The data suggest that systemic infusion of DPSCs-HGF is a potential therapeutic approach for OVX-induced bone loss, which might be mediated by paracrine mechanisms.