Abstract Investigations based on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for osteoporosis have attracted attention recently. MSCs can be derived from various tissues, such as bone marrow, adipose, umbilical cord, placenta, and dental pulp. Among these, dental pulp–derived MSCs (DPSCs) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-modified DPSCs (DPSCs-HGF) highly express osteogenic-related genes and have stronger osteogenic differentiation capacities. […]